The below advice is for all animals. Pictures are at end screen.
It was bound to happen. I did not take my own advise. I bought a goat from a livestock sale!
I couldn't help it. I went looking for a gate and came back with four goats. One had a rough edge on her
ear I mistakenly thought was some skin reaction to perhaps poison ivy. Four months later the "reaction"
was on every goat, horse, cow and donkey on the farm. At first, because the bumps look like a reaction, I thought
maybe it was the fly spray I had spread everywhere. Being on the ears and nose it began to look like sore mouth.
Once I saw it on the donkeys and the horses, then on the goats feet, I got down and dirty into research.
This is what I've found out about this potentially deadly little itchy bug.
Pictures of Mite Attack:
The scabs feel like large grains of sand. The hair will come off in tiny clumps as you rub salve over the scabs.
For all animals:
Use caution when treating pregnant animals.
Young animals- and even adults- can be killed by these pests.
Soak all ropes and halters in Permectrin II. (1/2 oz in three gallons of water.)
Spray down the barns and areas animals might have been scratching against.
Spray down vehicles that carried ropes and halters.
Scrub all buckets and feeders.
Set out rodent traps especially for woodchucks as they may continue to carry the pest.
This is a direct quote from Goat Link. Look under external parasites. This lady knows her stuff.
Infections of Psorptes mites, called mange or scab mites usually starts on the shoulders, back or the tail area since they prefer areas that are well covered by hair. Later in the course of infection they can spread to any other part of the body. Psorptes cuniculi mites prefer to live inside the ears. This is a very contagious mite and is considered to be reportable in Cattle and sheep in some states of the US.
Psorptes mites do not burrow into the skin. These mites have piercing mouth parts that they use to puncture the skin and to suck lymph. This stimulates an immune reaction by the host. The area will swell and serous fluid will seep to the surface creating a crust and scabs. The hair or wool will fall out or the goat or sheep will pull it out when biting at the very itchy lesions.
The Psorptes mites do not prefer to live on the bare crusty patches so they will migrate to the edges extending the infection outward. Skin scrapings to identify this mite needs to be made at the edges of the crusty lesions. Long standing infections can cause weight loss. These mites are most active in the autumn and winter. Psorptes mites are identified by their long, segmented pedicles.
Larvae feed for several days after hatching then molt to a nymph stage. These nymphs will molt in another 3 to 4 days into young females or males. Usually about twice as many females than males form. Mating takes place shortly after the molt and lasts only for 1 day or less. The female mite will molt again about 2 days later then will begin laying eggs in another day. This whole cycle takes only 9 days after she first hatched from the egg. The female will live for 30 to 40 days, laying about 5 eggs every day.
This type of mite commonly called a mange mite, causes tail or foot mange It does not burrow into the skin. Chorioptes mites are not species specific. Different species of this genus can be found on cattle, sheep and goats and the different species can interbreed with each other. Although the species that usually infect goats is called Chorioptes caprae, it is probably the same as the species that infects, sheep and cattle. Chorioptic mites can be identified by their very short, unjointed pedicles.
Infections of Chorioptes caprae the species that infects goats usually begins on the lower legs, later spreading to the hindquarters. Infections cause itching, and crust and scab formation. The life cycle is very similar to Psorptes mites, but is completed in about 3 weeks.
This type of mange mite burrows into the skin often spending the entire life cycle within burrows. Sarcoptes scabei is the species that infects most mammals. An infection begins in hairless regions or regions of short hair usually on the face or ears. Sarcoptes mites have long unsegmented pedicles.
The female Sarcoptes scabei burrows into the skin, and lays 40 to 50 eggs, 4 to 5 a day, in the tunnels. The eggs hatch in 3 to 5 days producing six-legged larva. The larva leave the breeding tunnels and wander on the skin or remain in the breeding tunnels and develop to the nymph stage. Those that reach the surface may die, or they can make shallow pockets in the skin tissue to feed and molt to several nymph stages which can also wander on the surface and make new pockets or extend the molting tunnels. Adult males and females form about 17 days after the eggs were first laid.
The female remains in her moulting pocket until fertilized by a male then extends it into a breeding tunnel, or returns to the skin surface to create a new tunnel and then begins laying eggs. Mature females do not live much longer than a month. Wandering larvae, nymphs and fertilized females spread the infection on the host and to other hosts. They cannot survive off the host for more than a few days.
As they pierce the skin to feed on lymph fluid and skin cells they cause a great deal of irritation, itching, and scratching which worsens the condition. Crusts form on the skin and then the skin becomes thickened and wrinkled and the hair falls out. Lesions in the skin begin to develop in just a few days after infection, but the intense itching typical of Sarcoptic mite infection does not begin for a month or so later. The fecal pellets of the mite are responsible for the host inflammatory response.
These mites prefer areas where there isn't much hair such as the face of goats and ears although in long standing infections the mites can spread to all parts of the body.
The signs include bare skin, which is thick and wrinkled and covered in dry crusts. Early in the infection small raised red bumps and fresh exudate can be seen. To identify these mites in the microscope deep scrapings of skin must be made down to the point of drawing blood. It still might be difficult to find live mites in the burrows.
Goats may rarely get infections of this mite commonly called an itch mite. Found more commonly on sheep, these very tiny, round mites -- about half the size of a Sarcoptes mite -- spread very slowly over the course of 3 to 4 years on the individual animal. It can cause a mild irritation, dry, scaley skin and weaking of the wool in sheep.
First- Powders do not work. The stuff flies off and is useless except to powder down sleep areas and scratching posts. I lime the whole floor and outside areas especially near the watering trough and feeding area. Powder the walls with the dust.
The advise for goats I have found two remedies.
Goat Link recommends ivermectin injections twice at three week intervals. I have given "Norommectin" which is ivermectin at the rate of 1 ml per 110lb of body weight. The goats react violently so be prepared to stand out of the way. It is better they are tied or in a small enclosure. They may take you down the hillside with them as I found out. This stuff really kills everything. I did not know about repeating the dose three weeks later. I might have cured the problem if I had. It can be used orally at the rate of 2cc to 110lbs of body weight to kill worms like stomach bots, however, it will not kill the mites or lice unless injected.
Another remedy is Ivermectin Drench.
Personally I use yellow antibiotic salve on the ears and nose to help with the healing.
Quotes from Others:
"I would use Ivermectin POUR ON, a blue liquid that you use directly on the back bone and this is one of the ONLY things that will successfully kill biting lice which is what this most likely is- tan or light colored moving buggies on the skin. Your oral preparations will not kill the lice nor will the dusts.
I would not use the permethrin myself especially on a pregnant
Scroll down to the Ivomec® Eprinex pour-on link and click it - this will
take you directly to the NADA page telling about the product from the
manufacturer, goat owners use this "off label" meaning it has not been
approved for goats but most everything we use has not either.
"I have used Ivomec Pour On with babies- On a cotton ball and dabbed on
the backline. I have not measured it for young kids just with the cotton
ball. I have also put it on the insides of the legs under the arms and groin
lightly using a cotton ball. Usually goats don't get fleas but the Ivomec
Pour on should work for that as well. "
The advise for horses and donkeys:
Do not use the injections on horses! Use Quest Oral (Moxidenthal0 and spray with Permectrin II (with active ingredient Permetrhin 10.0%. 1oz to three gallons) two weeks apart for severe infestation and three weeks apart for lighter.
Put salve on ears and nose to keep bites from infection.
The advise for cattle:
Use the pour on with caution to the timing as they are prone to a grub that if killed at the wrong time can kill a cow.
Spray with Permectrin at 1 oz in a three gallon ratio.
Valley Vet has this to Say:
Treatment of Lice for Horses.